Water Supply Engineering Bc Punmia Pdf 266
Water Supply Engineering by BC Punmia PDF 266: A Comprehensive Guide for Civil Engineers
Water supply engineering is a branch of civil engineering that deals with the planning, design, construction, operation and maintenance of water supply systems. Water supply systems are essential for the survival and well-being of human beings, animals and plants, as well as for the ecological balance of the environment. Water supply engineering also involves the treatment and disposal of wastewater generated by various activities.
water supply engineering bc punmia pdf 266
One of the best books for water supply engineering is Water Supply Engineering by BC Punmia PDF 266, which is written by Dr. B.C. Punmia, Ashok Kr. Jain and Arun Kr. Jain. This book covers all the aspects of water supply engineering, from sources of water, to water demand and quantity, to unit operations and processes, to conveyance and distribution of water, to pumps and pumping, to wells and groundwater, to water softening and disinfection. The book also provides numerous examples, problems, diagrams, tables and charts to illustrate the concepts and applications of water supply engineering.
The book is divided into 15 chapters, each covering a specific topic related to water supply engineering. The chapters are as follows:
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Surface Sources
Chapter 3: Wells
Chapter 4: Water Demand and Quantity
Chapter 5: Unit Operations
Chapter 6: Screening and Aeration
Chapter 7: Sedimentation
Chapter 8: Coagulation and Flocculation
Chapter 9: Filtration
Chapter 10: Disinfection
Chapter 11: Water Softening
Chapter 12: Miscellaneous Treatment Methods
Chapter 13: Pumps and Pumping
Chapter 14: Conveyance of Water
Chapter 15: Distribution of Water
The book is suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate students of civil engineering, as well as for practicing engineers and professionals involved in water supply engineering projects. The book is also useful for preparing for competitive exams such as GATE, IES, etc.
In this article, we will discuss some of the main topics covered in Water Supply Engineering by BC Punmia PDF 266, and how they are relevant for civil engineers.
Surface sources of water include rivers, lakes, ponds, reservoirs, canals, etc. These sources are generally preferred for water supply engineering because they are easily accessible, have large storage capacity, and can be used for multiple purposes such as irrigation, hydroelectric power generation, navigation, recreation, etc. However, surface sources also have some disadvantages, such as high turbidity, organic and inorganic impurities, seasonal variations, evaporation losses, etc. Therefore, surface sources require proper treatment and protection before they can be used for water supply engineering.
Wells are artificial structures that are constructed to tap the groundwater from aquifers. Aquifers are underground layers of porous and permeable rocks or soils that store and transmit water. Wells can be classified into different types based on their depth, diameter, construction method, pumping method, etc. Some of the common types of wells are dug wells, bored wells, driven wells, jetted wells, tubewells, etc. Wells have some advantages over surface sources, such as better quality of water, less contamination, less evaporation losses, etc. However, wells also have some disadvantages, such as limited yield, high cost of construction and maintenance, interference with other wells or aquifers, etc. Therefore, wells require proper design and operation for water supply engineering.
Water Demand and Quantity
Water demand and quantity are two important factors that determine the size and capacity of a water supply system. Water demand is the amount of water required by the consumers for various purposes such as domestic use, industrial use, commercial use, public use, fire fighting use, etc. Water demand depends on various factors such as population size and growth rate, per capita consumption rate, living standards and habits of consumers, climatic conditions and seasons, types and levels of economic activities, etc. Water quantity is the amount of water available from the source for water supply engineering. Water quantity depends on various factors such as rainfall and runoff patterns, catchment area and characteristics, storage capacity and losses of source, quality and reliability of source, etc. Water demand and quantity should be estimated accurately and balanced properly for water supply engineering.
Unit Operations and Processes
Unit operations and processes are the basic steps involved in the treatment of water to make it suitable for various purposes. Unit operations are the physical actions that are applied to water, such as screening, aeration, sedimentation, filtration, etc. Unit processes are the chemical or biological reactions that are induced in water, such as coagulation, flocculation, disinfection, softening, etc. Unit operations and processes are designed and selected based on the quality and quantity of raw water, the desired quality and quantity of treated water, the cost and availability of resources, the environmental and health regulations, etc.
Screening and Aeration
Screening and aeration are two important unit operations that are performed at the intake of a water supply system. Screening is the process of removing coarse and large suspended solids from water by passing it through screens or strainers of different sizes and shapes. Screening prevents clogging and damage of pumps, pipes and other equipment, and also reduces the load on subsequent treatment units. Aeration is the process of exposing water to air by spraying, cascading, bubbling, etc. Aeration removes dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, methane, etc., which may cause corrosion, odour and taste problems. Aeration also oxidizes iron and manganese compounds, which may cause staining and turbidity problems. Aeration also improves the dissolved oxygen content of water, which is essential for aquatic life and biological treatment.
Sedimentation is a unit operation that involves the settling of suspended solids from water by gravity. Sedimentation reduces the turbidity and colour of water, and also removes some microorganisms and organic matter. Sedimentation can be enhanced by adding coagulants and flocculants, which are chemicals that promote the aggregation of fine particles into larger flocs that settle faster. Sedimentation can be performed in different types of tanks or basins, such as rectangular, circular, hopper-bottomed, etc., depending on the design and capacity of the system.
Filtration is a unit operation that involves the removal of fine suspended solids and some dissolved solids from water by passing it through a porous medium such as sand, gravel, charcoal, etc. Filtration improves the clarity and quality of water, and also removes some microorganisms and organic matter. Filtration can be classified into different types based on the mode of operation, such as slow sand filtration, rapid sand filtration, pressure filtration, etc. Filtration can also be classified into different types based on the type of medium used, such as single-media filtration, dual-media filtration, multi-media filtration, etc. Filtration requires proper selection and maintenance of the filter media, as well as regular backwashing and cleaning of the filter beds.
Disinfection is a unit process that involves the destruction or inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms in water by applying chemical or physical agents. Disinfection is essential for water supply engineering to prevent waterborne diseases and to ensure the safety of water for human consumption and other uses. Disinfection can be achieved by using various agents such as chlorine, ozone, ultraviolet rays, etc. Disinfection requires proper dosage and contact time of the disinfectant, as well as monitoring and control of the residual disinfectant in water.
Water softening is a unit process that involves the removal or reduction of hardness-causing ions such as calcium and magnesium from water by chemical or physical methods. Hardness is the property of water that causes scaling and corrosion of pipes and equipment, reduces the efficiency of detergents and soap, and affects the taste and appearance of water. Water softening can be achieved by using various methods such as lime-soda process, ion exchange process, reverse osmosis process, etc. Water softening requires proper analysis and adjustment of the raw water quality, as well as regeneration and disposal of the spent materials.
Conveyance of Water
Conveyance of water is the system of transporting water from the source to the treatment plant, and from the treatment plant to the distribution network. Conveyance of water can be done by using various types of pipes, such as cast iron pipes, steel pipes, concrete pipes, plastic pipes, etc. Conveyance of water requires proper design and selection of pipes, based on factors such as flow rate, pressure, head loss, corrosion, durability, cost, etc. Conveyance of water also requires proper installation and maintenance of pipes, such as laying, jointing, testing, repairing, etc.
Distribution of Water
Distribution of water is the system of delivering water from the treatment plant to the consumers through a network of pipes, valves, fittings, meters, hydrants, etc. Distribution of water can be classified into different types based on the layout and pressure of the network, such as dead end system, grid iron system, ring system, radial system, etc. Distribution of water requires proper design and operation of the network, based on factors such as demand pattern, pressure variation, leakage control, water quality maintenance, fire fighting provision, etc. Distribution of water also requires proper management and regulation of the network, such as metering, billing, customer service, etc.
Water supply engineering is a vital and challenging field of civil engineering that deals with the planning, design, construction, operation and maintenance of water supply systems. Water supply systems are essential for the survival and well-being of human beings, animals and plants, as well as for the ecological balance of the environment. Water supply engineering involves various aspects such as sources of water, water demand and quantity, unit operations and processes, conveyance and distribution of water, etc. Water supply engineering requires a high degree of skill and judgement, as well as a thorough knowledge of the principles and practices of the subject. Water supply engineering also requires constant updating and innovation to cope with the increasing demand and changing quality of water. Water supply engineering is a rewarding and satisfying profession that contributes to the development and welfare of the society. d282676c82